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Greater kudu

About the kudu. Also referred to as the greater kudu

Anatomical and physiological parameters

Diagnostic imaging

Normal blood parameters

[1] [2]

Blood values

Faecal cortisol analysis


[3] [4] [5] [6]

Milk composition


Normal growth patterns

Muscle - meat

[8] [9] [10] [11] [12]




Temperature regulation



Developmental abnormalities and growth disturbances

Cornu cutaneum




Immunological dysfunctions

Physical causes of disease

Infectious diseases



Bacillus anthracis

[18] [19]




[21] [22] [23]


[24] [25] [26] [27]


Bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease

[28] [29] [30]


[31] [32]

Foot-and-mouth disease virus

[33] [34] [35]




[37] [38] [39] [40]

Malignant catarrhal fever

[41] [42]


[43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48]





[50] [51]



[52] [53]

Free-ranging kudu normally harbour numerous internal and external parasites. These are often symbiotic inhabitants of no significance in terms of disease and their presence should be interpreted with circumspection. Examples of these parasites include: Demodex sp. mites in the hair follicles.

Parasitism by Elaeophora sagitta[54][55] is often seen in kudus as an incidental finding at necropsy. In other species (such as eland) this parasite has been recorded as a cause of death because of overwhelming infections.



Nutritional diseases







Diseases of unknown cause


  1. Miller, M., Weber, M., Valdes, E. V., Neiffer, D., Fontenot, D., Fleming, G., & Stetter, M., 2010. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 41(3), 404-408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2009-0001.1
  2. Cooper, A. C. D., Stuttaford, G. M., & Carmichael, I. H., 1975. Studies on the serum proteins of game animals in Botswana: A preliminary report. African Journal of Ecology, 13(2), 145-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1975.tb00129.x
  3. Owen‐Smith, N., & Cooper, S. M., 1989. Nutritional ecology of a browsing ruminant, the kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), through the seasonal cycle. Journal of Zoology, 219(1), 29-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1989.tb02563.x
  4. Owen-Smith, N., 1997. Control of energy balance by a wild ungulate, the kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) through adaptive foraging behaviour. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 56(1A), 15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS19970006
  5. Van der Waal, C., Smit, G. N., & Grant, C. C., 2003. Faecal nitrogen as an indicator of the nutritional status of kudu in a semi-arid savanna. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 33(1), p-33. http://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC117159
  6. Turkstra, J., Harthoorn, A. M., Beukes, P. J. L., & Brits, R. J. N., 1977. The influence of seasonal changes in the concentration of trace elements in liver tissue of various wild animals determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry, 37(1), 473-481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02520553
  7. Hammond, E. E., & Fiorello, C. V., 2011. Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 42(4), 651-657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2011-0042.1
  8. Hoffman, L. C., Mostert, A. C., Kidd, M., & Laubscher, L. L., 2009. Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus): Carcass yield, physical quality and chemical composition of kudu and impala Longissimus dorsi muscle as affected by gender and age. Meat Science, 83(4), 788-795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.022
  9. Hoffman, L. C., Mostert, A. C., & Laubscher, L. L., 2009. Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus): The effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat. Meat Science, 83(4), 737-743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.026
  10. Mostert, R., & Hoffman, L. C., 2007. Effect of gender on the meat quality characteristics and chemical composition of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), an African antelope species. Food Chemistry, 104(2), 565-570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.006
  11. Mostert, A. C. (2007). Meat quality of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University). http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/18597
  12. Bekker, J. L., Hoffman, L. C., & Jooste, P. J., 2012. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review: review article. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 79(1), 1-12. http://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC129086
  13. Schiewe, M. C., Bush, M., de Vos, V., Brown, J. L., & Wildt, D. E., 1991. Semen characteristics, sperm freezing, and endocrine profiles in free-living wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 58-72. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095119
  14. Hetem, R. S., Mitchell, D., Maloney, S. K., Meyer, L. C., Fick, L. G., Kerley, G. I., & Fuller, A., 2008. Fever and sickness behavior during an opportunistic infection in a free-living antelope, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 294(1), R246-R254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00570.2007
  15. De Vos, V., & Kloppers, J. J., 1971. Cornu Cutaneum on the Mandibular region of a Greater Kudu Tragelaphus Strepsiceros. Koedoe, 14(1), 49-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v14i1.714
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  23. Smith, G. E., Anderson, E. C., Burridge, M. J., Peter, T. F., & Mahan, S. M., 1998. Growth of Cowdria ruminantium in tissue culture endothelial cell lines from wild African mammals. Journal of wildlife diseases, 34(2), 297-304. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.7589/0090-3558-34.2.297
  24. Keet, D. F., Kriek, N. P. J., Bengis, R. G., & Michel, A. L., 2001. Tuberculosis in kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 68(3), 225-230. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11589197
  25. Bengis, R. G., Keet, D. F., Michel, A. L., & Kriek, N. P. J., 2001. Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, in a kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from a commercial game farm in the Malelane area of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 68(3), 239-241. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11589199
  26. Weber, A., & van Hoven, W., 1992. Tuberculosis of the parotid salivary gland in a kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros. Koedoe, 35(1), 119-122. 10.4102/koedoe.v35i1.394
  27. Kriek, N., 2008. M. bovis-infected Wild Species. Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Animals and Humans, 238.
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  29. Simpson, V. R., 1979. Bluetongue antibody in Botswana's domestic and game animals. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 11(1), 43-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02237767
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  32. Scott, T. P., Stylianides, E., Markotter, W., & Nel, L., 2013. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and eland (Taurotragus oryx): short communication. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 84(1), 1-3. http://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC141245
  33. Letshwenyo, M., Mapitse, N., & Hyera, J. M. K., 2006. Foot-and-mouth disease in a kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Botswana. Veterinary Record, 159(8), 252-253.
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